OK, here are ten of my favorite literary rebels. (In no particular order.)
Sir Percy Blakeney, aka The Scarlet Pimpernel from The Scarlet Pimpernel series by Baroness Emmuska Orczy. One of my all-time favorite book heroes, Sir Percy rebels against the horrors of the French Revolution by rescuing aristos from the guillotine.
Alex and Lena from Delirium by Lauren Oliver. I loved this book! Alex and Lena rebel against the world to be together.
Yelena Zaltana from the Study series by Maria V. Snyder. She rebels against pretty much everything. Family, friends, torturers, kidnappers, assassins, teachers, nobility, Valek...well, she doesn't always rebel against Valek. :)
Tris and Four from Divergent by Veronica Roth. They both left their homes and families behind to make new lives for themselves.
Rhine from Wither by Lauren DeStefano. Married to a man she does not love and imprisoned in a world she hates, she never falters in her determination to be free.
Miles Vorkosigan from the Vorkosigan Saga by Lois McMaster Bujold. Miles leaves a life of wealth behind to start an interplanetary armada with the help of only two friends and becomes the most notorious man in the universe despite being crippled and quite short.
Charis from The Beacon at Alexandria by Gillian Bradshaw. Having no interest in being a proper maiden and marrying the nasty fellow her father has engaged her to, Charis disguises herself as a eunuch to study her true love. Medicine.
Tally Youngblood from the Uglies series by Scott Westerfeld. Even though she is not in her right mind most of the time, she still manages to rebel against those who seek to use her.
Robin Hood and Maid Marion. They abandon their wealthy lives as nobility to give aid to the weak against the tyrant Prince John and his minions.